What are the two basic styles of firearm actions ? In this article you’ll find everything you have to know about this subject.
In general… Let’s resume every category and then let’s dig into each one.
The six types of firearm actions style are:
- Semi-automatic Action
- Hinge Action (or Break)
Let’s begin with the small arms classification
Modern small arms are a complex system of samples, different in degree of automation, design principles, purpose and service conditions, the characteristic feature of which is the use of bullets for firing. Small arms are in service mainly with rifle (infantry) units and are the main means for defeating the enemy in close combat at distances up to 1000 m using projectiles (bullets, shot, grenades, etc.) that are ejected from the channel barrel due to the energy of powder gases.
According to their functional characteristics, small arms are divided into three groups: combat weapons (designed to destroy enemy manpower and equipment in combat); service weapons (for the performance of official duties by representatives of state power); civilian weapons (including self-defense weapons, hunting weapons, sports weapons, etc.) two basic styles actions.
All small arms are divided into small caliber weapons – from 2.7 to 6.5 mm, normal caliber – from 6.5 to 9 mm and large caliber – from 9 to 15 mm.
Depending on the type of tactical infantry unit armed with combat small arms, it is divided into weapons of a motorized rifle (infantry) squad, platoon, company, etc.
Along with motorized rifle units, small arms are widely used in all other branches of the military. At the same time, it can retain the value of one of the main means for hitting certain enemy targets, and also play an auxiliary role as a weapon of self-defense.
According to the method of using small arms in combat, they are divided into hand weapons held directly by the shooter when firing, and easel weapons mounted on a special machine or installation.
Maintenance of weapons during their operation can be carried out by one person or by a combat crew consisting of several people. Depending on this, small arms are divided into personal, individual, collective (group) and special. Personal small arms include pistols and revolvers, individual – magazine, self-loading and automatic rifles and carbines, submachine guns and machine guns (assault rifles), sniper rifles, group – heavy machine guns, light machine guns, uniform machine guns, heavy machine guns, anti-tank melee weapons (anti-tank rifles). Special types of small arms differ from personal, individual and group either by a highly specialized purpose, or by placement on appropriate technical means. Special small arms include aviation machine guns placed on aircraft (helicopters) to combat air and ground targets; tank machine guns; anti-aircraft machine guns and anti-aircraft machine gun installations; special purpose systems for police and other functions two basic styles actions.
Revolvers and pistols are portable personal firearms for self-defense and assault, adapted to be held and controlled when fired with one hand. Designed to defeat the enemy in close proximity to the shooter (at ranges up to 50 m) with the immediate incapacitation of a live target, they have a non-failure operation, readiness for instantaneous firing, safe handling and small weight and dimensions, which made these weapons extremely convenient in close combat.
Revolvers are non-automatic multi-shot weapons, and their design feature is magazines in the form of rotating drums with nests for cartridges, which at the same time serve as chambers.
Automatic and self-loading pistols are automatic weapons, as a rule, they have capacious, quick-change magazines. Compared to revolvers, pistols have a higher rate of fire and have a much more convenient and portable form, which is important when carrying a weapon.
9-mm Italian submachine gun “Beretta” M 12
Submachine guns are individual automatic weapons in which pistol cartridges are used for firing. They were intended to defeat enemy manpower at close range (up to 200 m). The high combat and service-operational qualities inherent in these weapons allowed submachine guns to quickly take a special place in the armament system of the armies and law enforcement agencies of many countries two basic styles actions.
Repeating rifles and carbines – the main hand-held individual firearms of the infantry with mechanical reloading – were widely used until the end of World War II.
Automatic and self-loading rifles and carbines , which have come to replace magazine rifles and carbines, are hand-held individual automatic infantry firearms, controlled and held when firing with two hands with the butt resting on the shoulder, intended to defeat enemy personnel at distances up to 800 m and have a high practical rate of fire 25-40 rds / min.
5.56 mm Swiss sniper rifle SG 550
Sniper rifles are magazine or self-loading rifles that have excellent combat and are equipped with an optical sight. They are intended for armament of specially trained shooters, allowing for accurate shooting at a distance of up to 800 – 1000 m at remote small-sized objects. When shooting at 100 m from sniper rifles (without an optical sight), the accuracy of the battle is considered normal if all four holes fit into a circle with a diameter of 8 cm, while the average point of impact (STP) must coincide with the control point or deviate from it in any direction more than 3 cm. The accuracy of the battle of a conventional rifle is considered normal if all four holes or three of them fit into a circle with a diameter of 15 cm, while the STP should not deviate from the control point in any direction by more than 5 cm.
5.45 mm Russian Kalashnikov assault rifle AK-74M
Automatic (assault rifle) – hand-held individual automatic weapon, the design of which takes into account the specific requirements of high maneuverability when firing from hand (small size and weight), high rate of fire (selection of the type of fire – automatic and single fire and a replaceable high-capacity magazine, at least 20 cartridges), as well as a fairly large range of effective fire (up to 600 – 800 m). The Second World War contributed to the emergence of this new type of small arms, designed to use an intermediate cartridge of reduced power. This weapon occupied an intermediate position in terms of its characteristics between submachine guns and automatic rifles.
7.71-mm English machine
gun “Vickers” Mk 1
Machine guns– a group of automatic infantry weapons designed to conduct long-term continuous fire. Shooting from them is carried out from specially designed machines. The easel machine guns, being the most powerful type of small arms, were intended to engage open and behind small terrain folds of group live targets and enemy fire weapons at distances up to 1000 m, having the ability to create dense fire (with a practical rate of fire up to 300 rounds / min) due to conducting continuous firing in long bursts, which was achieved by the presence of tape power and intensive cooling of the barrel. Easel machine guns had the highest combat qualities compared to other types of small arms. Due to the presence of a stable machine when firing, the accuracy of the battle from them was extremely high.
Belgian soldier with a 5.56 mm Minimi light machine gun
Light machine guns are group automatic infantry weapons designed for continuous fire. Light machine guns are designed to engage open group and single targets at ranges up to 800-1000 m. With a relatively small weight (7-16 kg) and good ballistic qualities, they had, in comparison with easel machine guns, a higher flexibility of fire, adapted to any form mobile infantry combat. Due to the good stability of this weapon, which was achieved by the presence of a front support (bipod) and a butt rest on the shoulder, light machine guns had quite satisfactory accuracy of combat when firing in both short and long bursts (the practical rate of fire of the weapon reached 150 rounds / min), which turned them into a powerful means of supporting infantry directly on the battlefield.
Single machine guns are group automatic infantry weapons designed for continuous fire. Appeared in the 1930-1940s, they became an intermediate link between easel and light machine guns. Their appearance was caused by the desire to increase the maneuverability of the easel machine gun, on the one hand, on the other hand, to increase the stability, and hence the accuracy of the light machine gun. Single machine guns can be used both in manual and easel versions. Single machine guns mainly have a belt feed system, although there may be a double feed system (magazine and belt).
English helicopter pilot with a 7.62 mm FN MAG aircraft machine gun
Aviation machine gunsare representatives of special small arms designed for air combat and destruction of various ground targets. Initial attempts to adapt existing infantry weapons as aircraft weapons soon gave way to the design of special types of aircraft machine guns. This weapon acquired its final features by the 1930s. For the first time in weapons practice, machine guns were created that took into account in their designs the specific requirements of installation and operation on aircraft. They constituted a separate subspecies of small arms, sharply differing in their characteristics in combat use and operation from ground weapons. Depending on the method of installation on the aircraft, there are three options for aviation machine guns: turret mounted on installations that are movable relative to the aircraft; synchronous, mounted motionless in the fuselage of the aircraft and firing through a plane swept by the propeller blades; as well as wing mounted in the wing consoles motionless.
Tank machine gunsthey are also representatives of special small arms designed to destroy enemy manpower, various vehicles, firing points, as well as to combat low-flying aircraft. In accordance with the combat purpose, tank machine guns were divided into two groups: weapons designed to fire at ground targets, and weapons for anti-aircraft fire. The variety of tasks performed by these machine guns and the specifics of their operation in small volumes of combat compartments of tanks and armored personnel carriers led to the fact that they have their own specific features inherent only to these weapons: the presence of an electric trigger (NSVT machine gun can function without an electric trigger); lack of mechanical sights (the NSVT machine gun has sights, but they are not used when firing from a tank); pointing the machine gun at the target is carried out using a special optical sight; lack of bipod and butt; in order to provide the necessary intensity of air cooling without resorting to changing heated barrels, the barrels of SGMT and PKT tank machine guns have an increased mass to ensure intensive shooting; so, the PKT barrel is 1.2 kg more massive than the PK barrel; cartridge cases of the KPVT and NSVT tank machine guns direct the reflected shells forward, which helps to reduce the gas contamination of the fighting compartment of the armored object; the design of the gas regulator provides for a decrease in the gas contamination of the fighting compartment of the armored vehicle; the front mount of tank machine guns has a double-acting spring shock absorber. in order to provide the necessary intensity of air cooling without resorting to changing heated barrels, the barrels of SGMT and PKT tank machine guns have an increased mass to ensure intensive shooting; so, the PKT barrel is 1.2 kg more massive than the PK barrel; cartridge cases of the KPVT and NSVT tank machine guns direct the reflected shells forward, which helps to reduce the gas contamination of the fighting compartment of the armored vehicle; the design of the gas regulator provides for a decrease in the gas contamination of the fighting compartment of the armored object; the front mount of tank machine guns has a double-acting spring shock absorber. in order to provide the necessary intensity of air cooling without resorting to changing heated barrels, the barrels of SGMT and PKT tank machine guns have an increased mass to ensure intensive shooting; so, the PKT barrel is 1.2 kg more massive than the PK barrel; cartridge cases of the KPVT and NSVT tank machine guns direct the reflected shells forward, which helps to reduce the gas contamination of the fighting compartment of the armored object; the design of the gas regulator provides for a decrease in the gas contamination of the fighting compartment of the armored object; the front mount of tank machine guns has a double-acting spring shock absorber. cartridge cases of the KPVT and NSVT tank machine guns direct the reflected shells forward, which helps to reduce the gas contamination of the fighting compartment of the armored object; the design of the gas regulator provides for a decrease in the gas contamination of the fighting compartment of the armored object; the front mount of tank machine guns has a double-acting spring shock absorber. cartridge cases of the KPVT and NSVT tank machine guns direct the reflected shells forward, which helps to reduce the gas contamination of the fighting compartment of the armored object; the design of the gas regulator provides for a decrease in the gas contamination of the fighting compartment of the armored object; the front mount of tank machine guns has a double-acting spring shock absorber.
Calculation of the Soviet 7.62-mm anti-aircraft machine gun mount
arr. 1931 firing at enemy aircraft
Anti-aircraft machine gunsappeared as a special weapon based on the implementation of the combat experience of the First World War. Large-caliber machine guns mounted on both universal and special anti-aircraft machines are beginning to be used as anti-aircraft weapons. In order to increase the reality of the fire of this weapon and increase its rate of fire, complex anti-aircraft machine gun installations (ZPU) are created, consisting of several machine guns of normal rifle caliber or heavy machine guns. ZPU acquired special importance in the fight against low-flying air targets at altitudes up to 1500 m, which were difficult to hit with anti-aircraft artillery fire due to its insufficient fire maneuverability and rate of fire. The new weapon has become not only the most powerful means of combating an air enemy, anti-aircraft machine gun installations, as a rule,
Large-caliber machine guns , which have become one of the most powerful types of automatic infantry support weapons, were a response to the appearance of military aircraft and armored vehicles on the battlefields. They were intended for air defense and fighting lightly armored ground targets and enemy firing points. This weapon, in addition to being used as an anti-tank weapon for close combat infantry, has also received the widest distribution for arming tanks, aircraft, ships and vessels of the Navy. An increase in the efficiency of firing from them was facilitated by a stronger destructive effect of bullets, achieved due to the high ballistic characteristics of the weapon, as well as the use of special bullets (armor-piercing incendiary, high-explosive fragmentation, etc.).
14.5 mm Soviet anti-tank gun Degyyarev PTRD
Anti-tank rifles (PTR), which appeared simultaneously with heavy machine guns, became the first weapon in the world designed specifically for confrontation with a new type of enemy military equipment. The conditions for a successful fight against tanks required the presence in rifle subunits of powerful, but at the same time cheap, light, well-camouflaged and rapid-fire weapons capable of penetrating tank armor 25-30 mm thick at a distance of at least 1000 m. Therefore, with their appearance, infantry gained reliable anti-tank melee weapon, which was influenced by the relatively good maneuverability inherent in this type of weapon, combined with high armor penetration. The first PTR samples were created on the basis of the designs of conventional magazine rifles, while the increase in armor penetration was achieved by increasing the caliber and muzzle velocity of the bullet, as well as through the use of new designs of armor-piercing, armor-piercing incendiary bullets. Further improvement of armored vehicles required the creation of more powerful infantry anti-tank melee weapons. To increase the rate of fire of anti-tank rifles, along with guns with mechanical reloading, automatic or semi-automatic (self-loading) magazine-fed weapons appeared. The caliber of most anti-tank guns was in the range of 12.7 – 20 mm, and their initial speed was 600 – 1000 m / s. To increase the rate of fire of anti-tank rifles, along with guns with mechanical reloading, automatic or semi-automatic (self-loading) magazine-fed weapons appeared. The caliber of most anti-tank guns was in the range of 12.7 – 20 mm, and their initial speed was 600 – 1000 m / s. To increase the rate of fire of anti-tank rifles, along with guns with mechanical reloading, automatic or semi-automatic (self-loading) magazine-fed weapons appeared. The caliber of most anti-tank guns was in the range of 12.7 – 20 mm, and their initial speed was 600 – 1000 m / s.
During the Second World War, anti-tank guns were replaced by new anti-tank weapon systems: hand-held anti-tank grenade launchers and rocket-propelled cumulative grenades for them, thereby laying the foundation for a new direction in the development of weapons. Extremely effective and at the same time simple and cheap weapons, which are RPGs, allow infantrymen in the conditions of modern maneuverable combat to fight on equal terms with almost all enemy tanks.
In any sample of small arms, for the next shot to be fired, it is necessary to reload, as well as cock and lower the firing mechanism.
Reloading can either be carried out by the shooter, or occur through the use of the energy of powder gases. Depending on the degree of automation of reloading operations, all modern small arms are divided into non-automatic, automatic and semi-automatic.
In non-automatic weapons, all reloading operations and the production of each aimed shot are performed by the shooter manually, and the energy of the powder gases is used only to communicate translational and rotational motion to the bullet or projectile two basic styles actions.
In automatic weapons, all reloading operations with the next cartridge are performed automatically, without the participation of the shooter, due to the energy of powder gases or other (foreign) energy sources (mechanized weapons). In addition to reloading operations, which are the most difficult to perform, the energy of powder gases in automatic weapons is usually used to cock and sometimes lower parts of the percussion mechanism.
Modern automatic weapons include a large number of various samples that differ from each other both in combat purpose and in the principles of operation and features of the device.
If the automatic reloading of a weapon for each subsequent shot requires the trigger to be released and then pulled again, then such an automatic weapon is called a self-loading or single-fire weapon. Self-loading weapons allow only single firing. The automation of weapons has significantly affected its properties. Compared to non-automatic weapons, it has a higher rate of fire, and the shooter is less tired when shooting and has the opportunity to better observe the situation without being distracted by reloading the weapon after each shot and without changing the position of the weapon.
The urgent need to increase the practical rate of fire has led to the emergence of weapons in which automatic reloading takes place due to the energy of powder gases without the participation of the shooter himself. In this case, the shooter only aims the weapon at the target and pulls the trigger. Such weapons are called automatic (self-firing) or continuous fire weapons. When the shooter acts on the trigger mechanism of such a weapon, continuous shooting occurs, automatically a shot follows a shot until the cartridges run out or the effect on the trigger stops. From such weapons, you can fire a series of shots, bursts. The combat rate of fire of automatic weapons is at least 40 – 60 rounds / min. The high rate of fire of automatic weapons made them much more powerful,
Belgian soldier with 7.62mm
FN FAL assault rifle
Automatic weapons are characterized by the presence of a number of special mechanisms that complicate their design and maintenance. Sometimes an automatic weapon provides a device that automatically limits the length of a series (queue) of shots. It is then called a fixed-fire weapon.
Often, automatic weapons are equipped with a special mechanism (translator) that allows you to switch automation from single to continuous fire and vice versa. Then it is called a weapon of double fire. Such a weapon allows you to conduct well-aimed single fire from it and, if necessary, shoot bursts. Double fire is usually provided for in automatic weapons, sometimes in light machine guns.
In semi-automatic weapons, only part of the reloading operations are carried out automatically, and the rest of the operations are performed manually by the shooter. Partial automation does not lead to a significant complication of the design and an increase in the weight of weapon samples, which is why it turns out to be rational in a number of cases.
To actuate the automation of automatic weapons, with a few exceptions, the energy of the powder gases generated during the shot is used. Along with this, there were repeated attempts to use the energy of extraneous sources, mainly electric, aircraft piston engines (aircraft weapons). Such weapons are called mechanized automatic weapons. The idea of its appearance is the possibility of a sharp increase in the rate of fire by eliminating the dependence of each subsequent shot on the previous one and by accelerating the operation of mechanisms using an external source of energy. Single-barreled mechanized weapons have not gained distribution due to the complexity of the design, caused by the need to have locks for the safety of firing during prolonged shots and turning off the engine when malfunctions occur in the mechanisms. These difficulties were avoided in a number of systems, an example of which is the American six-barreled 20-mm Vulkan M 61 aircraft gun.
Tactical features of the use and use of firearms in various situations
In addition to general principles, the tactics of using firearms in the real conditions of an incident are determined by the specifics of the situation at the scene at the time of suppression of illegal actions.
The situation is defined in the literature as a certain set, a combination of circumstances and conditions that create certain relationships, a certain situation or situation that directly affects a person at a given moment. The situation also refers to the alignment and balance of forces.
The situation of the use of firearms includes the following elements of different order:
- 1) factors characterizing the socially dangerous act or event itself (the nature of illegal actions, the degree of their public danger, the number of offenders, etc.);
- 2) factors characterizing the situation in space and time and under certain conditions of the material environment (situation, objects of criminal encroachment, place, time, etc.);
- 3) factors characterizing the offender (gender, age, physical development, criminal record, etc.);
- 4) factors characterizing the subject of the use of firearms (the level of professional knowledge, physical, combat training, service life, age, etc.).
All these factors reflect the individual characteristics of a particular situation in the use of weapons, they to some extent affect the balance of forces of the opposing sides and determine the choice of a particular tactic or method of using firearms or the need to comply with certain rules that ensure its lawful use.
Given these factors, situations involving the use of firearms can be classified on various grounds. At the same time, given that the use of firearms is strictly regulated by law, the basis for the classification of situations in which firearms are used should be the cases of their use and use provided for by law.
From the point of view of the tactical features of the actions of police officers in the conditions of the use of firearms, all cases of their use and use provided for by law can be divided into the following three groups:
- 1) situations of repulsing an attack;
- 2) situations of persecution;
- 3) situations of elimination of danger.
All situations of repelling an attack are characterized by the fact that the danger to public relations protected by law is created as a result of the illegal actions of the offender, who, as a rule, is the initiator and active party in the conflict.
The situations of repelling an attack include cases when a weapon is used by a police officer in a state of necessary defense, namely:
- – to repel an attack on citizens that is dangerous to their life or health;
- – for the release of hostages;
- – to repel an attack on a police officer when his life or health is in direct danger;
- – to repel an attack on a police officer in order to seize a weapon;
- – to repel an armed or group attack on the homes of citizens, the premises of state bodies, organizations and public associations, on buildings, structures, premises and vehicles of places of detention;
- – to repel an attack on a police convoy.
In situations of persecution, the active party and the initiator of the conflict, as a rule, is an employee (other authorized official, employee) who uses firearms to detain (capture) the offender. Persecution situations include cases of the use of firearms:
- – to detain a person who has committed a serious crime and who is trying to escape immediately after it has been committed from the scene;
- – to detain a person providing armed resistance;
- – to detain a person escaping from places of detention or from under escort.
Hazard elimination situations include cases where the use of firearms, as a rule, is not associated with causing physical harm to a person and it is necessary:
- to stop the vehicle, the driver of which creates a real danger to life and health of people;
- to neutralize an animal that threatens the life and health of people two basic styles actions.
The tactics of using (using) firearms includes, in our opinion, three components that determine the actions of an employee (another authorized official, employee) in a particular situation.
- 1. Analysis of the situation and adoption of a legally justified decision on the use of firearms.
- 2. The choice of a certain tactical technique and method of application (use) of firearms, taking into account the procedure for its use established by law.
- 3. Compliance with the necessary security measures when handling firearms and firing in a particular situation.
Taking into account these elements, we will try to consider the tactical features of the use of firearms by police officers in various situations.
According to statistics, among the situations of attack, firearms are most often used to repel an attack on a police officer when his life or health is in direct danger. Thus, in 1999, out of 832 cases of the use of firearms by employees of the internal affairs bodies, to protect citizens from an attack dangerous to their life and health, they were used 26 times, and to repel an attack on police officers – 388 times, which amounted to 40% of the total. This can be explained by the fact that, taking measures to protect the life and health of citizens from unlawful encroachments, police officers themselves become the object of attack by aggressive offenders. In some cases, attacks on police officers who are on duty are committed for other reasons, for example,
In this regard, a police officer, when in a public place in uniform and with a service weapon, must constantly monitor the situation around him and not weaken his vigilance. In particular, experts have formulated the following rule of conduct: “when you enter the service, be vigilant (“be afraid”), prudence, keep yourself in a state of optimal tension”. Deviation from this rule can lead to tragic consequences.
So, on November 22, 1999 at 14:20, after S.Ya. platoon commander, senior police lieutenant A. Ilyin, traffic police inspector of the 10th battalion, Shevchenko V. V. went to a cafe for lunch. At about 2:30 p.m. Shevchenko V.V. made an order and started eating not far from the exit from the cafe. At that time, there were two visitors (young people) in the cafe, who, not at the time of V.V. Shevchenko’s order, were already having lunch. At approximately 2:50 pm, an unidentified citizen entered the café and, approaching the counter, asked how much a bottle of beer cost. Having received an answer from the barmaid that a bottle of beer costs 10 rubles. 50 kopecks, the citizen went to the exit, but, not reaching the exit, went behind Shevchenko V.V.
As a result of the shot Shevchenko V.V. received a penetrating wound to the head and fell to the floor. After that, the offender opened Shevchenko V.V.’s holster, which was on the harness belt, broke the safety strap and took possession of Shevchenko V.V.’s service weapon. – with a Makarov pistol, equipped with eight PM rounds, after which he fled the scene of the crime.
An ambulance brigade that arrived at the scene of the incident, Shevchenko V.V. was taken to the clinic of military field surgery of the Military Medical Academy. S. M. Kirov, where at 16.10 in the operating room he died from his wound without regaining consciousness.
Unfortunately, this tragedy confirms the correctness of the warning expressed in the literature that danger can arise from everyday everyday life situations, which, due to their habitual nature, dull the vigilance of employees and cause violation of instructions and orders, which are currently perceived as excessively strict, inadequate to a specific situation. . In the above case, the police officer ignored the restriction established by Art. 112 UPPS MOB for police squads, namely, the prohibition during service “to enter residential buildings, canteens, shops, clubs, restaurants and other premises without official necessity.”
The duty officer of the republican special communications center of Tatarstan, letting a former employee into the premises of the node, did not perceive this as a gross violation of official duties, since he knew his former colleague well and believed that the ban on admitting strangers to the office premises did not apply to a familiar person. As a result, both the officer on duty and eight other employees were killed, one was seriously injured, and a significant amount of weapons was stolen.
High vigilance and constant readiness to repel an attack is a necessary prerequisite for the successful performance of official duties.
In the event of a real danger to the life or health of an employee (another authorized official, employee), his readiness to respond is important. To do this, an employee (other authorized official, employee), coming into contact with the offender or arriving at the scene of an incident, must constantly monitor the situation, “feel” it, and also know the methods for identifying suspicious behavior and signs of potential danger and threat.
For example, in accordance with Art. 107 UPSS MOB during service, outfits should pay special attention to:
– citizens who often appear at objects where material assets are stored, are in circulation, banking institutions, trade enterprises, warehouses, bases, showing interest in the state of windows, doors, locks, fences, working hours and organization of security;
– people who show suspicious alertness and anxiety, dressed out of season or in clothes that do not correspond to height and build, as well as having bandages and injuries;
– groups of citizens, especially young people, gathering in squares, courtyards, entrances of houses and other places, while avoiding unreasonable actions that could lead to conflict situations;
– places of possible occurrence of offenders;
– citizens who violate the rules of the road, and children playing in dangerous places;
– the condition of doors, shop windows and windows of shops and other institutions where valuables are stored;
– Suspicious noises, the appearance of fire or smoke in buildings and facilities.
If “something” seems unusual or doubtful, the employee (another authorized official, employee) is obliged to activate the self-insurance mechanism, i.e., behave in the same way as in a situation involving danger (think over the sequence of actions, organize a safety net, inform the operational command post and, above all, be vigilant). Already at the stage of a conflict, psychological readiness should be formed, if necessary, for active response, including the use of firearms.
In this regard, we note that the number of injured police officers during attacks with the use of firearms, depending on the factors of unrealized combat readiness, is characterized by the numbers.
The indicators given in the table indicate that in most cases the police officers suffered due to the weakening of vigilance and unwillingness to repel a sudden attack, or, as a result of this, due to the indecision and slowness of their actions. As D. Koretsky rightly notes, this happens, first of all, because the criminals choose the time, place, method, instruments of encroachment, the victim in such a way as to achieve success. That is, an advantage over the victim is provided in advance.
The tactics of using weapons in an attack depends on the overall balance of power between the attackers and the police officers who carry out protection.
The use of firearms is justified not only from the point of view of the law, but also from the point of view of tactical expediency when an unfavorable situation develops at the scene of the incident, which may arise in the event of a group, armed attack on an employee (another authorized official, employee) or citizens , or when the attacker surpasses them in physical strength.
If we turn to foreign experience, then, according to American colleagues, a policeman rarely gets involved in fights, he, first of all, carefully evaluates the physical qualities of all the people he meets. He always “evaluates a person as he approaches him, deciding whether he can take him if necessary”.
In this case, the life and health of the police officer was endangered by a physically stronger person, and therefore the actions of the police officer were correct both from the point of view of the law and from the point of view of tactics. However, this incident had tragic consequences. On the ninth day, Sukhachev died from his wound while in the hospital, after which the district prosecutor’s office opened a criminal case against a police officer under Part 2 of Art. 171 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR (abuse of power under aggravating circumstances). However, the people’s court acquitted
Zhmakin, already accused under Art. 105 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR (murder in excess of the necessary defense) due to the lack of corpus delicti. Then, after the cassation protest of the district prosecutor, the case was sent for consideration to the city court, by the decision of which the police officer was finally acquitted.
It seems that when the life and health of an employee (another authorized official, employee) is in direct danger, despite the fact that the use of weapons can lead to far-reaching consequences for both parties, a police officer must act boldly and decisively. Otherwise, as practice shows, the indecisive and tactically illiterate actions of police officers in such situations lead either to serious consequences for the police officers themselves, or to the loss of service weapons.
It should be borne in mind that the personal service weapon of a police officer – PM – is designed to defeat the enemy at short distances. His bullets have a great, so-called stopping effect, even with a slight penetration deep into the body, they give the body a deafening concussion blow that immediately affects the entire body. Therefore, in order to neutralize the actions of the attacker, as a rule, it is enough to hit and not in the vital parts of the body. Such preventive actions in the event of a real danger to life or health can save the life of not only the police officer himself, but also the attacker.
It is especially important to act decisively when an employee (another authorized official, employee) repels an armed attack. If the attacker is armed not with firearms, but with cold weapons or other piercing and cutting objects, the safety zone should be observed, i.e., do not let the attacker near you.
For example, senior police sergeant Borisov acted tactically competently; The latter, armed with an ax, threatened to kill his daughter. Being opposite the window and watching the actions of Ilyichev, Borisov saw how Ilyichev, with an ax in his hands, jumped out of the window and, shouting threats of reprisal, began to approach him. In order to protect his life and health, Borisov fired three warning shots upwards from his service weapon, but the last one continued to advance. Then the police officer fired a shot to kill, inflicting a penetrating gunshot wound on Mr. Ilyichev’s right thigh.
One more example. According to the residents of the house, that obscene language, noise, screams are heard from one apartment, the police squad, upon arrival at the scene, found that an unknown man was chopping down the front door of the specified apartment with an ax from the inside. He did not respond to the demands of the police officers to stop his actions. Opening the door in this way, he rushed at them with an ax in his hand, at the same time he swung to strike with an ax at the foreman of police Berezhny, who, substituting his right hand, deflected the blow, while receiving a chopped wound on his right hand.
Jumping to the side, police officer Berezhnoy shouted to an unknown man: “Drop the ax! I will shoot! ”, But the man with death threats re-raised the ax to strike. Then the police officer shot to kill, inflicting a wound in the shoulder area on the attacker. As a result of the gunshot wound, the man died in the hospital.
For the courage shown in protecting the lives of citizens, his life and the life of a comrade, the foreman of the militia Berezhnoy was presented with a state award – the medal “For excellent service in the protection of public order.”
It should be noted that in the second case, the police officer could use weapons without warning already at the first attempt of the attacker to hit the officer with an ax and prevent serious consequences for both sides. An analysis of the above cases shows that Article 16 of the Law on Police is extremely important for ensuring the safety of a police officer, as it allows him to avoid direct physical contact with the attacker at the time of the existence of a real danger to his life or health.
The most dangerous is an attack on an employee (another authorized official, employee) using firearms by the attacker.
In all of the above cases, under the conditions of an attack dangerous to the life and health of an employee (another authorized official, employee) or citizens, when it is impossible to do without the use of weapons, all measures depending on the employee (another authorized official, employee) must be applied to neither bystanders nor himself were harmed. Special precautions must be observed in rooms, vehicles and public places. If possible, you should choose the safest position for firing (for example, because of a pole, tree, other shelter), maintain self-control and self-control. In order to ensure public safety, police officers must be prudent in choosing the moment and place for the use of weapons. In particular,
Based on this brief analysis of situations of attack on an employee (another authorized official, employee) or citizens who give the right to use firearms, the following tactical rules of conduct can be formulated:
- – you should always remember that when coming into contact with the offender in order to suppress illegal actions, the employee (other authorized official, employee) becomes a potential target of attack;
- – in the event of a real danger to life or health, it is necessary to maintain restraint and self-control, act boldly and decisively; the force of firearms should be used when other means may not be effective;
- – having uncovered a weapon, one should not let the attacker close to him and engage in physical combat with him;
- – the weapon is used to defeat the vital organs of the attacker, as a rule, when there is a mortal danger from his side.
Hostage-taking is a special type of attack that endangers the life and health of citizens. The tactics of using weapons during the release of hostages has its own characteristics.
As a rule, the release of hostages begins with negotiations with the hostage-takers in order to understand the requirements of the hostage-takers. Peaceful resolution of the situation when releasing hostages is always preferable, and if the demands of the hostages are legitimate, then in order to prevent the capture and release of the hostages, it is enough to fulfill the demands of the hostages. However, in the vast majority of cases, hostage-taking is carried out in order to enforce clearly unlawful demands. Often, such demands are aimed at providing an opportunity to hide from persecution, leave the place of detention and evade punishment. To achieve these goals, the invaders put forward additional demands for weapons, vehicles, and large sums of money.
If in the course of negotiations the hostages refuse to release the hostages, categorically insisting on the fulfillment of their demands, and back up these demands with threats of reprisals against the hostages or even defiant infliction of wounds on them, there comes a moment when it is necessary to take decisive action to protect the life and health of the hostages, up to the use of firearms. weapons.
The literature has expressed the opinion that the use of force and firearms to free the hostages is possible only when the persuasion of the participants in the capture is ineffective, and the used “non-violent means are ineffective and do not give any hope of achieving the intended result”.
According to foreign experts, negotiations with the hijackers should continue until the person who was entrusted with the work on this incident believes that he can confidently predict the next step of the person who took the hostages, and that this step will not harm the hostages. If the person no longer believes that he can predict with certainty the next step of the hostage-taker, or believes that the next step may harm the hostage, the negotiations should be terminated. When negotiations are terminated, an order is given to use an assault unit or snipers. This type of action should be considered as a de facto “last exit”, not only for legal reasons, but also because such actions significantly endanger the lives of the hostages and the police.
The suppression of hostage-taking with the use of firearms must ensure the safety of hostages with the obligatory observance of the principle of causing harm to the participants in the seizure, no more than is necessary to suppress their criminal actions. The physical elimination of the participants in the capture is possible only when there is no other way to stop the capture and protect the hostages.
When repulsing a group or armed attack on objects, employees (other authorized officials, employees) must know the rules of the service, be able to selectively assess the situation that has arisen, and quickly, decisively and in strict accordance with the law take measures to repel the attack. If an attack is made on a protected object by an unarmed person or persons, the police officer, while on duty, must first of all inform the head of the guard (shift senior) about this and call a police squad from the reserve to block and detain the criminal (criminals). Under these circumstances, and in the presence of an immediate threat to the life of a police officer by an unarmed criminal, the use of weapons will be justified as an exceptional and last resort to repel an attack.
Recently, there have been cases of attacks by criminals on objects such as savings banks, commercial banks, currency exchange offices and post offices in order to take possession of the money and valuables located in them. Such attacks can be perpetrated by criminals acting alone or in an organized group.
The use of firearms to capture a person who provides armed resistance also has its own characteristics.
Such a need may arise, as a rule, in the following situations:
1. An armed criminal is caught by officers at the crime scene. During the detention, he is resisting or intends to resist.
2. The offender, discovered (by citizens, police officers) after the commission of the crime, provides armed resistance.
Concretizing these situations, it should be noted that in practice, until recently, most often it was necessary to meet with the so-called domestic crimes (murders, attempted murders, bodily injuries committed motivated by jealousy and quarrels); with crimes committed out of hooligan motives with the use of weapons; with robbery and bandit attacks with the use of weapons on certain persons (cashiers, collectors, taxi drivers, citizens) in order to seize valuables and money. The modern criminogenic situation gives rise to new, more dangerous varieties of criminal aggression: the clash of well-armed criminal groups among themselves (the so-called “showdowns”), their attack on police units and police department buildings, settlements, etc.
A correct assessment of the situation at the scene of the incident makes it possible to decide: to carry out the arrest of an armed criminal by organizing an operation, or to limit oneself to the forces of a duty squad.
In any case, if a police squad collided with an armed criminal, then the chief of the squad is obliged to immediately report this to the duty officer and act on his instructions.
Detention of a criminal who provides active armed resistance to police officers, only by the forces of the squad, is carried out only when the criminal is active in order to achieve a criminal result and his actions are dangerous to the life and health of citizens and delay in detention can lead to irreparable consequences.
If the criminals who provide armed resistance are in hiding, then their detention is carried out by a capture detachment (group) specially created for this task, including employees specially trained for this, by carrying out an operation according to a previously developed plan.
The main type of action of such groups is military action, that is, the suppression of criminals by fire and their capture or destruction.
One of the central and most responsible elements of the operation to apprehend armed criminals is the adoption of a decision on the targeted implementation of active hostilities with the use of firearms. As a rule, such a decision is made by the head of the operation, if the use of special means for some reason does not give the desired result. Such a decision is a forced measure and is taken in order to provide the capture group with the opportunity to approach the armed criminals in order to neutralize their active actions and detain (and in exceptional cases, destroy them).
When deciding on the use of firearms, special attention should be paid to the identity of the detainee. Thus, if a person is detained who has previously committed serious crimes and is providing armed resistance to authorities, the question of the appropriateness and timing of the use of firearms is decided within the framework of the law, but mainly from the point of view of tactical necessity.
If it is reliably known that criminals (especially domestic hooligans) are in a state of alcoholic intoxication or under the influence of drugs or in a state of nervous pathological arousal, and if it is known that they have not previously committed serious crimes, active actions to capture with the use of firearms taken immediately only if the actions of criminals in this particular situation:
a) pose a threat to the life or health of third parties;
b) are fraught with the danger of causing significant material damage. In the absence of these circumstances, the start of any active action to capture criminals with the use of firearms should be postponed for the time necessary for them to return to their normal state.
In a direct encounter with an armed criminal who, for example, is attempting to break through a blocking group, when the life or health of a particular participant in the operation is endangered, the decision to use weapons is made by this employee independently.
Firing during an operation, as a rule, is entrusted to the fire cover group, which, if necessary, is included in the composition of the blocking group. The task of the fire cover group is:
– the use of small arms (blank firing) as a means of masking, disorienting criminals in order to divert their attention and create favorable conditions for the actions of the capture group;
– the use of firearms (shooting with live ammunition) to kill in cases where the lives of citizens and other persons participating in the operation are in real danger and it is impossible to avert it by other means two basic styles of guns actions.
Concealing and disorienting firing with blank cartridges is carried out, as a rule, with the use of rapid-fire automatic weapons (machine guns, submachine guns). Aimed firing with live ammunition is most effective with the use of sniper rifles or special optical devices, laser designators for service weapons. It should be borne in mind that a sniper rifle has an undeniable advantage over other types of small arms in terms of range and accuracy of fire. The use of such a rifle by a specially trained shooter (sniper) practically eliminates the possibility of hitting unauthorized citizens, and also makes it possible to neutralize armed criminals (without death), while remaining out of the reach of fire.
With regard to the armament of police officers, the following requirements must be met:
- – all participants in the operation must be armed, with the exception of employees who have not undergone initial training;
- – the nature of the weapons should correspond to the tasks and upcoming actions of each employee;
- – the weapon issued to the employee must be in a complete set, taking into account the personnel regulations for each weapon;
- – Police officers, as a rule, should be issued personal service weapons assigned to them. This contributes to greater confidence in its application, and also facilitates subsequent proceedings in conflict situations.
An important element of the tactics of using firearms is the obligatory observance of safety measures when handling weapons. The personal safety of an employee (other authorized official, employee) in the conditions of the use of firearms is ensured by compliance with the following rules.
- Weapons and ammunition must be in good condition (fit for shooting).
- 2. The weapon must be permanently assigned to this employee and shot personally by him in various weather conditions and in various lighting conditions.
- 3. In the process of using weapons, the employee observes the rules of disguise, applies the necessary tactics and tricks.
- The employee timely and skillfully eliminates delays and malfunctions of the weapon when firing.
- 5. When carrying out operations to apprehend an armed criminal, the employee must be well aware of the tactical and technical data and the capabilities of the weapons available to the criminal.
- 6. Each employee is obliged to take into account the possibility of destruction by fire through walls, doors, partitions of other police officers and citizens.
- 7. When carrying out operations with the use of weapons, each employee must strictly observe discipline and the established order of battle for the distribution of forces and means.
In addition, while on duty, the participants in the operation must also comply with certain rules, the observance of which guarantees both their personal safety and the safety of others.
The essence of these rules is as follows:
- – you can not shoot at the line on which there are employees of the blocking or cordon group;
- – it is forbidden to shoot at an unclear target, in the direction of a rustle, noise, as well as in the direction of a squad pursuing a hiding criminal;
- – it is forbidden, unless absolutely necessary, to fire aimed shots at a criminal who is in the firing sector of another member of the task force. This rule follows both from the observance of security measures, and from the fact that each employee is fully and independently responsible for the performance of the task assigned to him in the area of \u200b\u200bthe assigned post. The need for fire support of some members of the police group by others may arise in the event of a numerical superiority of criminals, superiority in weapons, provision of ammunition, etc.
In situations of elimination of danger, firearms are most often used to stop a motor vehicle by damaging it. Shooting is carried out either at the front wheels, when the stopped vehicle moves towards the employee (another authorized official, employee), or at the rear wheels of the pursued vehicle. In this case, it should be borne in mind that in the event of a hit on the target, the vehicle, as a rule, begins to skid in the direction from which the wheel was pierced. In the first situation, it is strictly forbidden to enter the roadway when stopping an approaching vehicle.
In some cases, it is advisable to conduct aimed shooting not at the wheels of the vehicle, but at the engine, if the design of this tool is such that the engine is removed from the location of the driver and passengers, as well as the gas tank.
The use of firearms to stop vehicles carrying flammable and poisonous liquids should be refrained from, especially within populated areas.
What are the two basic styles of firearm actions? In summary
– manual short-barreled non-automatic or self-loading (less often automatic) firearms or pneumatic weapons. It is usually designed to hit targets at ranges up to 25-50 meters. Early pistols were usually single-shot, with smooth or rifled barrels. Modern pistols are mostly self-loading, rifled, multi-shot (from 5-7 to 15-20 or more rounds).
Submachine gun (PP)
– individual hand-held automatic small arms of continuous fire, using a pistol cartridge for firing.
, or automatic carbine, in foreign literature also an assault rifle – a hand-held individual automatic firearm designed to defeat enemy personnel in close combat and capable of creating a high density of fire.
– individual small arms for rifle-machine-gun or intermediate ammunition, capable of firing both bursts and single shots.
(originally – “screw gun”) – a rifled small arms, structurally designed to be held and controlled when firing with two hands with the butt resting on the shoulder.
– a large-caliber smooth-bore long-range shotgun, most often with a matchlock. Appeared at the beginning of the 16th century in Western Europe and in Russia. It was intended to defeat warriors dressed in protective armor. Caliber up to 23 mm, weight about 9 kg, firing range up to 250 m.
– in the modern narrow sense – a long-barreled small arms designed to be held and controlled when firing with two hands with the butt resting on the shoulder, smooth-bore or combined (with smooth and rifled barrels), firing a bullet or shot. Until relatively recently (the beginning of the 20th century), “gun” in the broad sense meant any long-barreled hand weapon, including rifled and automatic weapons, and in the earliest sense this word was practically synonymous with the word “weapon” in Russian.
– group or individual small arms automatic support weapons designed to hit various ground, surface and air targets with bullets. The automaticity of action, as a rule, is achieved by using the energy of exhaust powder gases, sometimes by using the recoil energy of the barrel. massive trunk, as well as a more capacious power supply.
– portable firearms designed to destroy equipment, structures or manpower of the enemy by firing ammunition that is much larger in caliber than a small arms cartridge. The ammunition of a grenade launcher is called a grenade (grenade shot).
When it comes to firearms, there are two basic styles of actions: semi-automatic and manual. Semi-automatic firearms use the energy from the fired round to eject the spent casing and load a new round into the chamber.
Manual firearms require the shooter to manually cycle the action in order to eject the spent casing and load a new round into the chamber. Semi-automatic firearms are typically more reliable and easier to use than manual firearms. They are also generally more accurate and require less maintenance.
Semi-automatic firearms are popular for target shooting, hunting, and self-defense. Manual firearms are typically more reliable and require less maintenance than semi-automatic firearms. They are also generally more accurate and easier to use than semi-automatic firearms.
Manual firearms are popular for target shooting, hunting, and self-defense.
No matter which type of action you choose, it is important to understand how it works and practice with it regularly in order to become proficient with it. Understanding the basics of firearm actions can help you make an informed decision when purchasing a firearm.